On this day in history...

93,488 Views | 1836 Replies | Last: 1 mo ago by Jack Bauer
historian
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Boorstin is not my favorite for American history but he's good. I prefer Edmund Morgan for early U.S. history.
“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
historian
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October 2:

1452: Birthday of Richard III of England

1535: Jacques Cartier arrived in a Canadian town he renamed Montreal.

1780: British officer John Andr was hanged as a spy by the Continental Army.

1789: The U.S. Bill of Rights was sent to the states for ratification.

1800: Birthday of Nat Turner, American slave and leader of the Nat Turner rebellion

1803: Death of Samuel Adams, American politician

1835: Texans in Gonzales defied Mexican authorities by refusing to turn over a cannon that had been loaned to them for protection against Indian attacks. When soldiers came to claim the cannon, they were met with gunfire and the famous "Come and Take It" flag. This was the beginning of the Texas Revolution.

1847: Birthday of Paul von Hindenburg, German field marshal and politician, President of Germany who appointed Hitler to the office of Chancellor

1851: Birthday of Ferdinand Foch, French field marshal

1869: Birthday of Mohandas Gandhi, Indian freedom fighter, activist and philosopher

1870: The people of the papal states voted to unite with the new Italian nation. Rome became the capital.

1871: Mormon leader Brigham Young was arrested for polygamy. He would be convicted but have that overturned by the Supreme Court.

1879: Germany and Austria-Hungary agreed to form the Dual Alliance.

1919: Pres. Woodrow Wilson suffered a massive stroke and was bedridden for the remainder of his presidency.

1920: Death of Max Bruch, German composer and conductor

1944: German forces forced the surrender of remaining Jewish rebels, thus ending the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.

1948: Birthday of Avery Brooks, American actor

1950: Charles M. Schultz's comic strip Peanuts first appeared in newspapers.

1951: Birthday of Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner (aka Sting), English singer-songwriter and actor

1967: Thurgood Marshall sworn in as first black Supreme Court justice.

1985: Death of Rock Hudson, American actor

1998: Death of Gene Autry, American actor, singer, and guitarist

2002: The Beltway sniper attacks began in Washington, D.C. Extending over two weeks, these attacks would kill 10 people.

2005: Death of Nipsy Russell, American comedian and actor

2017: Death of Tom Petty, American musician
“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
historian
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October 3:

42 BC: Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian decisively defeated Brutus and Cassius, assassins of Julius Caesar.

1226: Death of Francis of Assisi, Italian friar and saint

1789: George Washington proclaimed a day of Thanksgiving.

1838: Death of Black Hawk, American tribal leader

1863: Pres. Lincoln proclaimed an official Thanksgiving holiday in gratitude for the victory at Gettysburg.

1895: Stephen Crane's novel, The Red Badge of Courage was published.

1929: Death of Gustav Stresemann, German politician, Chancellor of Germany

1932: Iraq won independence from the British mandate, a legacy of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after WWI.

1935: Birthday of Brig. Gen. Charles Duke, American general, pilot, and astronaut, 10thand youngest man to walk on the moon

1941: Birthday of Chubby Checker, American singer-songwriter

1942: German scientists conducted the first successful test of their V-2 rocket reaching an altitude of 46 nautical miles.

1952: The UK successfully tested a nuclear weapon to become the world's third nuclear power.

1990: German reunification after the fall of communism. A sign of the end of the Cold War.

1993: An American attack against a warlord in Mogadishu failed. 18 U.S. soldiers and over 350 Somalis died in the Blackhawk Down incident.

1995: A jury found O.J. Simpson not guilty in the murder of his estranged wife and her friend.

2004: Death of Janet Leigh, American actress

2015: Baylor football beat Texas Tech at Jerry World, 63-35 with 368 yards rushing, 221 of those from Shock Linwood.
“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
historian
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“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
quash
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1838 and 1993, wow.
“Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place.” (The Law, p.6) Frederic Bastiat
historian
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Strange, huh?!

History does that sometimes.
“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
historian
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October 4:

1535: Publication of the Coverdale Bible with translations into English by William Tyndale and Myles Coverdale.

1582: Pope Gregory XIII introduced the Gregorian Calendar, the one we use today.

1669: Death of Rembrandt, Dutch painter and illustrator

1777: Battle of Germantown: British forces under Gen. William Howe repelled the American forces under Gen. Washington.

1824: Mexico enacted their new constitution to become a republic.

1853: The Ottomans declared war on the Russian Empire starting the Crimean War.

1861: Birthday of Walter Rauschenbusch, American pastor and theologian

1861: Birthday of Frederic Remington, American painter, sculptor, and illustrator

1876: The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opened as the first public college in Texas.

1883: The first run of the Orient Express.

1918: The German government sent a telegram to Pres. Wilson seeking an armistice.

1923: Birthday of Charlton Heston, American actor, director, and activist

1927: Gutzon Borglum began sculpting Mt. Rushmore.

1944: Death of Al Smith, American lawyer and politician, Governor of New York

1947: Death of Max Planck, German physicist and academic

1957: The Soviets launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite.

1958: France adopted the constitution of the Fifth Republic, the current one in operation.

1965: Pope Paul VI began the first papal visit to the Americas.

2004: Death of Gordon Cooper, American colonel, engineer, and astronaut

2011: Michael Morton, who spent 25 years in prison for murder, was exonerated by DNA evidence.

2014: Baylor football defeated Texas in Austin, 28-7.
“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
historian
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“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
whitetrash
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historian said:




10/4/97: in a less successful era, after a 35-7 loss at home to Tech, head coach Dirty Dave Roberts declares BU "the worst team in America."
LIB,MR BEARS
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1876: The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opened as the first public college in Texas. Two weeks later, they claimed their 4th national championship.
historian
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October 5:

1520: Birthday of Alessandro Farnese, Italian cardinal and diplomat

1789: Women's march on Versailles: During the French Revolution a mob of angry Parisian women walked 10+ miles to the Palace of Versailles because the poor families were hungry. They had heard a rumor that the king had an abundant supply so they forced Louis XVI and his family to move to Paris where they remained hostages. As they marched back to the city, they celebrated with, "Here is the baker, the baker's wife, and the baker's little boy!"

1805: Death of Charles Cornwallis, English general and politician, lost Battle of Yorktown to American forces under Gen. George Washington along with French allies

1813: Gen. William Henry Harrison defeated the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, who was killed in the battle.

1829: Birthday of Chester A. Arthur, American general, lawyer, and politician, 21stPresident of the United States

1838: 18 Texian settlers were killed or kidnapped in the Killough massacre by Native Americans in east Texas.

1880: Alonzo T. Cross patented the first ball point pen.

1880: Death of Jacques Offenbach, German-French cellist and composer

1882: Birthday of Robert Goddard, American rocket scientist

1902: Birthday of Ray Kroc, American businessman and philanthropist, man who turned McDonald's into an international fast food brand

1915: Germany apologized for the sinking of the Lusitaniaand promised to make restitution to the families of the 128 American victims who lost their lives.

1921: The World Series was broadcast on the radio for the first time.

1922: Birthday of Bill Keane, American soldier and cartoonist, creator of The Family Circus

1936: Birthday of Vaclav Havel, anti-communist dissident and 1stPresident of the Czech Republic

1937: Birthday of Barry Switzer, American football player and coach

1943: 98 American POWs were executed by Japanese forces on Wake Island.

1947: Pres. Harry S. Truman delivered the first ever televised presidential speech from the Oval Office.

1962: Premier of Dr. No, the first James Bond film.

1970: Founding of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).

1981: Death of Gloria Grahame, American actress

2000: Mass demonstrations in Serbia forced the resignation of Slobodan Milosevic.

2004: Death of Rodney Dangerfield, American comedian, actor, producer, and screenwriter

2011: Death of Steve Jobs, American businessman, co-founder of Apple Computer

2013: Baylor football defeated W Virginia 73-42 breaking numerous offensive records: 872 yards total offense (369 in the first quarter & 679 in the first half!)
“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
historian
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“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
historian
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“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
whitetrash
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historian said:

October 5:


2013: Baylor football defeated W Virginia 73-42 breaking numerous offensive records: 872 yards total offense (369 in the first quarter & 679 in the first half!)
Oddly enough, that was one of only 2 Baylor home games that have been played on this date since WWII. The other was Kevin Steele's lone Big12 victory over KU 35-32 in 2002.

quash
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That football half showed up in my FB memories today. It's a good un.
“Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place.” (The Law, p.6) Frederic Bastiat
historian
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October 6:

1552: Birthday of Matteo Ricci, Italian priest and missionary

1536: William Tyndale, English translator of the New Testament, was strangled and burned at the stake for heresy.

1600: Premiere of Euridice by Jacopo Peri and Giulio Caccini, the earliest surviving opera.

1683: Germantown, Pennsylvania was founded in the first major immigration of Germans to America.

1846: Birthday of George Westinghouse, American engineer and businessman

1892: Death of Alfred, Lord Tennyson, English poet

1908: The Austro-Hungarian Empire annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina, adding to the tensions in the Balkans.

1922: Birthday of Joe Frazier, American baseball player and manager

1926: Babe Ruth hit a record 3 homers against the St. Louis Cardinals.

1927: The Jazz Singer, the first "talkie", opened in theaters.

1955: Birthday of Tony Dungy, American football player and coach

1973: Egypt and Syria staged a surprise attack on Israel in the Yom Kippur War. This was the first serious threat to Israel since that nation's modern rebirth in 1948 and also threatened to heat up the Cold War.

1973: Birthday of Ioan Gruffudd, Welsh actor

1973: Birthday of Rebecca Lobo, American basketball player and sportscaster

1976: The Gang of Four were arrested in China ending the Cultural Revolution.

1979: Pope John Paul II became the first pontiff to visit the White House.

1981: Egyptian Pres. Anwar Sadat was assassinated by Islamofascist extremists 5 years after signing the Camp David Accords. Egypt was the first Arab nation to recognize Israel and he paid for it with his life.

1985: Death of Nelson Riddle, American composer, conductor, and bandleader

1989: Death of Bette Davis, American actress

1995: Astronomers discover a planet orbiting 51 Pegasi, the second known star with that distinction.

2000: Resignation of Slobodan Milosevic as Yugoslavia's president.
“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
quash
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The Tyndale story has always bothered me. Getting the bible into native languages should have long been a church goal.
“Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place.” (The Law, p.6) Frederic Bastiat
quash
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“Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place.” (The Law, p.6) Frederic Bastiat
historian
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quash said:

The Tyndale story has always bothered me. Getting the bible into native languages should have long been a church goal.
Yes. And to be martyred for facilitating the spread of the gospel. I'm not sure, but I suspect that the idea of scripture in the vernacular was so radical that some authorities saw it as threatening to their power.
“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
Fat Daddy
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Listen for this line- "when Sinatra sings against Nelson Riddle strings….

historian
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Or just listen to Sinatra sing a Nelson Riddle tune or a Riddle arrangement of a Gershwin or Porter tune.
“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
historian
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October 7:

1571: Battle of Lepanto: A coalition of Christian forces won a naval battle against the Ottoman Turks near Greece.

1573: Birthday of William Laud, controversial English archbishop and academic

1763: King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 closing the lands across the Appalachians to further settlement.

1765: Delegates from nine colonies met at the Stamp Act Congress to organize a united response to British provocations. It was an early step towards the American Revolution.

1780: Battle of King's Mountain: a decisive victory for the American Patriots against the Redcoats.

1792: Death of George Mason, American lawyer and politician, delegate to the Constitutional Convention

1849: Death of Edgar Allen Poe, American poet, short story writer, and critic; inventor of the detective novel

1870: During the Franco-Prussian War, Leon Gambetta escaped the siege of Paris in a hot air balloon.

1879: German and Austria-Hungary signed an agreement to create the Dual Alliance.

1888: Birthday of Henry Wallace, American agronomist and politician, Vice President of the U.S.

1897: Birthday of Elijah Muhammad, American religious leader (Nation of Islam), mentor to Malcolm X

1900: Birthday of Henrich Himmler, German commander and politician; leader of the SS, SA, and the Gestapo; the primary architect of the Holocaust

1913: Debut of Ford's moving assembly line. This revolutionized manufacturing.

1916: Georgia Tech defeated Cumberland College in football 222-0. This is the most lopsided football game in history.

1919: Founding of KLM, the oldest airline still operating under its original name.

1931: Birthday of Desmond Tutu, South African archbishop and activist

1933: Air France was created out of the merger of 5 other airlines.

1939: Birthday of Bill Snyder, American football player and coach, aka the "Purple Wizard" of Manhattan

1943: Birthday of Oliver North, American colonel, journalist, and author

1944: An uprising took place at the Birkenau concentration camp (part of the Auschwitz system) resulting in one of the crematoria being destroyed.

1949: Birth of East Germany as Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders`

1952: Birthday of Vladimir Putin, Russian colonel and politician, President of Russia

1955: Birthday of Yo-Yo Ma, French-American cellist and educator

1958: A coup d'tat in Pakistan produced a prolonged period of military rule.

1959: Death of Mario Lanza, American tenor and actor

1960: Sen. John F. Kennedy & VP Richard Nixon engaged in the second televised debate between the two presidential candidates.

1985: Hijacking of an Italian cruise ship, the Achille Lauro,by 4 PLO terrorists.

1996: Fox News Channel began broadcasting.

2001: American attack on Afghanistan began in response to the terrorist attacks on 9/11.

2003: Arnold Schwarzenegger was elected governor of California.
“Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.”
I Corinthians 10:31
historian
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October 8:

1754: Death of Henry Fielding, English novelist and playwright

1793: Death of John Hancock, American merchant and politician, Governor of Massachusetts, signer of the Declaration of Independence

1869: Death of Franklin Pierce, American general, lawyer, politician, 14thPresident of the United States

1871: The Great Chicago Fire began.

1890: Birthday of Eddie Rickenbacker, US fighter ace during WWI

1895: Birthday of Juan Peron, Argentinian general and politician, President of Argentina

1912: Beginning of First Balkan War as Montenegro declared war on the Ottoman Empire.

1917: Birthday of Walter Lord, American historian and author

1918: Corp. Alvin York displayed amazing bravery during WWI fighting in the Argonne: singlehandedly, he killed 20 Germans while capturing 132 others and destroying several of their guns.

1919: Congress passed the Volstead Act to enforce Prohibition.

1921: First live broadcast of a football game as Pittsburg defeated West Virginia 21-13.

1941: Birthday of Jesse Jackson, American minister and activist

1949: Birthday of Sigourney Weaver, American actress and producer

1956: Don Larsen of the New York Yankees pitched the only perfect game in a World Series.

1967: Guerrilla leader Che Guevara and his men were captured in Bolivia.

1970: North Vietnamese communists rejected Pres. Richard Nixon's peace proposal.

1970: Alexander Solzhenitsyn won the Nobel Prize in literature.

1970: Birthday of Matt Damon, American actor, producer, and screenwriter

1982: The Polish communist government banned all trade unions, including Solidarity.

1982: The musical Catsbegin its successful run on Broadway.

1992: Death of Willy Brandt, German lawyer and politician, Chancellor of West Germany

2001: The Office of Homeland Security was established.
historian
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October 9:

28: The Temple of Apollo was dedicated on the Palatine Hill in Rome.

1410: Prague's astronomical clock was first mentioned.

1446: The Hangui alphabet was published in Korea.

1604: Kepler's Supernova was the most recent supernova to be observed in the Milky Way.

1635: Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay colony.

1701: The Collegiate School of Connecticut was chartered in Old Saybrook. Today it is called Yale.

1708: Peter the Great defeated the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya.

1757: Birthday of Charles X of France

1779: Start of Luddite riots in Manchester, England as workers destroyed the new machines for spinning cotton.

1781: American forces began shelling British positions in Yorktown.

1806: Prussia began the War of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon's France.

1812: In a naval engagement on Lake Erie, American forces captured two British ships: HMS Detroitand HMS Caledonia. The U.S. defeated the most powerful navy in the world, a navy that rarely lost a battle and even more rarely had their ships captured.

1835: Birthday of Camille Saint-Sans, French composer and conductor

1854: Beginning of the siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War.

1859: Birthday of Alfred Dreyfus, French artillery officer infamously falsely accused of espionage and imprisoned because he was Jewish.

1873: Birthday of Charles Rudolph Walgreen, American pharmacist and businessman, founder of Walgreens

1888: Washington Monumentopened to the public.

1899: Birthday of Bruce Catton, prominent American historian of the U.S. Civil War

1914: German forces took Antwerp after a 14 day siege.

1918: Birthday of E. Howard Hunt, American CIA officer and author

1919: The Cincinnati Reds won the World Series resulting in the Black Sox Scandal.

1936: Boulder Dam (later Hoover Dam) began to generate electricity and transmit it to Los Angeles.

1940: Birthday of John Lennon, member of the "Beatles"

1958: Birthday of Mike Singletary, American football player and coach, Baylor and NFL legend

1965: Birthday of Jimbo Fisher, American football player and coach

1966: Birthday of David Cameron, English politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

1967: The day after his capture, Ernesto "Che" Guevara was executed for attempting to incite a revolution in Bolivia.

1970: The Khmer Republic was proclaimed in Cambodia.

1974: Death of Oskar Schindler, Czech-German businessman, hero of the Holocaust

1975: Andrei Sakharov won the Nobel Peace Prize.

1981: France abolished the death penalty.

1986: The Phantom of the Opera, eventually the second longest running musical in London, opened.

1986: Fox Broadcasting Company launches as the 4thU.S. television network.

1987: Death of Clare Boothe Luce, American author, playwright, and diplomat

2006: North Korea conducted their first test of a nuclear device.
whitetrash
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historian said:

October 9:

1635: Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bat colony.

Fat Daddy
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whitetrash said:

historian said:

October 9:

1635: Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bat colony.




At least he left us something as he leaved…


quash
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Roger Williams was just getting started collecting banhammers.
“Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place.” (The Law, p.6) Frederic Bastiat
historian
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I'm done.
Keyser Soze
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historian said:

I'm done.
Thanks, enjoyed it and appreciate your time
Fat Daddy
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historian said:

I'm done.


Reconsider? I look forward to this every day!

Thanks for the time and effort that made this great!
whitetrash
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historian said:

October 12:

1492: Christopher Columbus landed on an island in the Caribbean (we don't know exactly which one) and therefore discovered America. Although the Vikings had settled in America hundreds of years earlier, their colonies failed and their voyages were nothing more than adventure stories to people in Scandinavia. It was Columbus that changed the world with his voyages.

1810: Bavarian Crown Prince, later to be Ludwig I, was married setting off celebrations including horse races that would be repeated the next year and thereafter. Thus began the annual tradition of Oktoberfest in Munich.

1945: Desmond Doss won the Congressional Medal of Honor, the first conscientious objector to win one. He was the inspiration for the recent film Hacksaw Ridge.

1960: Soviet dictator Nikita Khrushchev removed his shoe and either banged it on the table or threatened to while at the UN.

2000: American destroyer USS Cole attacked by terrorists while in Yemen.

2002: Terrorist attack on Bali.

2007: Al Gore won the Nobel Peace Prize for his propaganda book, An Inconvenient Truth.

From 2 years ago.
historian
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This is only for 2014:

October 11:

1727: George II was crowned King of England.

1862: The Confederate government passed a law exempting slaveowners with at least 20 slaves exempt from military service.

1884: Birthday of Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady of the U.S.

1899: South African Boers, descended from Dutch settlers, declared war on Great Britain.

1962: Opening of Vatican II

1968: Apollo 7 launched: the first manned Apollo mission

1975: Bill Clinton married Hillary Rodham (and has been regretting it ever since!).

1975: Debut of Saturday Night Live. No Clinton skit to my knowledge.

1986: Ronald Reagan walked out of the Reykjavik summit with Mikhail Gorbachev over his refusal to give up on the Strategic Defensive Initiative (aka "Star Wars"). A year later he would sign the INF Treaty, the first successful nuclear arms agreement in history.

2014: Baylor football played the best college football game of the year [according to Sports Illustrated] with an amazing comeback against TCU: 24 unanswered points, 61-58, "One True Champion".
LIB,MR BEARS
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0054

Nero succeeds his great uncle Claudius, who was murdered by his wife, as the new emperor of Rome.

1307

Members of the Knights of Templar are arrested throughout France, imprisoned and tortured by the order of King Philip the Fair of France.

1670

Virginia passes a law that blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians cannot be used as slaves

1775

The Continental Congress authorizes construction of two warships, thus instituting an American naval force

1903

Boston defeats Pittsburgh in baseball's first World Series. There were no trash cans in either dugout

MrGolfguy
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LIB,MR BEARS said:


1903

Boston defeats Pittsburgh in baseball's first World Series. There were no trash cans in either dugout

Epic
If the real thing don't do the trick
You better make up something quick
LIB,MR BEARS
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1783

Francois Pilatre de Rozier makes the first manned flight in a hot air balloon. The first flight was let out to 82 feet, but over the next few days the altitude increased up to 6,500 feet.

1813

During the land defeat of the British on the Thames River in Canada, the Indian chief Tecumseh, now a brigadier general with the British Army (War of 1812), is killed.

1863

For the second time, the Confederate submarine H L Hunley sinks during a practice dive in Charleston Harbor, this time drowning its inventor along with seven crew members.

1892

An attempt to rob two banks in Coffeyville, Kan., ends in disaster for the Dalton gang as four of the five outlaws are killed and Emmet Dalton is seriously wounded.

1894

Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer, is arrested for betraying military secrets to Germany.

1914

Congress passes the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, which labor leader Samuel Gompers calls "labor's charter of freedom." The act exempts unions from anti-trust laws; strikes, picketing and boycotting become legal; corporate interlocking directorates become illegal, as does setting prices which would effect a monopoly.

1924

German ZR-3 flies 5000 miles, the furthest Zeppelin flight to date.

1945

Vichy French Premier Pierre Laval is executed by a firing squad for his wartime collaboration with the Germans.

1964

Nikita Khrushchev is replaced by Leonid Brezhnev as leader of the Soviet Union.

1969

Rallies for The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam draw over 2 million demonstrators across the US, a quarter million of them in the nation's capital. A young soldier by the name of Forrest Gump made a brief appearance on stage.

2011

Protests break out in countries around the globe, under the slogan "United for Global Democracy."

 
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