On this day in history...

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historian said:

Yes it is I wonder. if they did any movies together.

Gregory Peck and Bette Davis never appeared together in a film.
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I should have known!
“Incline my heart to your testimonies, and not to selfish gain!”
Psalm 119:36
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April 6:

1199: King Richard I was killed during a siege of the Castle of Chalus in France.

1483: Birthday of Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio), Italian Reanaissance painter and sculptor

1786: Birthday of Sacagawea, American explorer, guide to the Lewis and Clark expedition

1789: The first U.S. Congress began regular sessions in New York City.

1814: Granted sovereignty over the island of Elba and even allowed to retain the title of emperor, Napoleon abdicated at Fontainbleau.

1830: Joseph Smith organized the Mormon Church in New York.

1832: The Black Hawk War: Native Americans and Anglo settlers over their tribal lands in modern Illinois.

1841: John Tyler was inaugurated as 10thpresident of the U.S. after the death of his predecessor William Henry Harrison two days earlier.

1862: The Battle of Shiloh began. It was a loss for the Union forces, as most early battles of the Civil War were.

1866: Birthday of Lincoln Steffens, American journalist, muckraker

1896: First modern Olympics opened in Athens, Greece.

1903: It was revealed that French army nationalists forged documents to guarantee the conviction of Alfred Dreyfus of espionage.

1909: The expedition led by Robert Peary reached the North Pole.

1917: Congress declared war on Germany and the U.S. officially became a belligerent in WWI.

1924: Four planes left Seattle on the first successful flight around the world.

1927: Birthday of Gerry Mulligan, jazz saxophonist

1928: Birthday of James Watson, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA

1929: Birthday of Andre Previn, pianist and conductor

1941: Germany invaded Yugoslavia and Greece.

1965: Pres. Lyndon Johnson authorized the use of ground troops in combat operations in Vietnam.
“Incline my heart to your testimonies, and not to selfish gain!”
Psalm 119:36
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April 7:

1862: The Civil War Battle of Shiloh ended with a Confederate victory.

1945: The largest battleship ever built, the Yamoto, was sunk by Allied forces off of Okinawa.

1953: Dag Hammarskjold of Sweden was elected Secretary-General of the United Nations.

1954: Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower delivered the "domino theory" speech suggesting a fall of French Indochina (Vietnam) to the communists would lead to a similar fate for neighboring countries. The prediction proved to be only partly true.

1963: Yugoslavia made Tito, their communist dictator, leader for life.

1970: Actor John Wayne won his only Oscar for his role in True Grit.

1994: Violence broke out in Rwanda eventually leading to genocide as Hutus murdered over 800,000 Tutsis while the world did nothing.

2019: The Baylor Lady Bears defeated Notre Dame in Tampa, Florida to win the NCAA Women's Basketball National Championship, Baylor's third under Head Coach Kim Mulkey.
“Incline my heart to your testimonies, and not to selfish gain!”
Psalm 119:36
How long do you want to ignore this user?

“Incline my heart to your testimonies, and not to selfish gain!”
Psalm 119:36
How long do you want to ignore this user?
“Incline my heart to your testimonies, and not to selfish gain!”
Psalm 119:36
How long do you want to ignore this user?
April 8:

563 BC: Birthday of Siddhartha Gautama, aka the Buddha.

1605: Birthday of Philip IV, king of Spain and Portugal

1789: The first U.S. Congress began regular sessions in New York City.

1893: Birthday of Mary Pickford, early film actress

1893: Birthday of Edgar "Yip" Harburg, lyricist ("Over the Rainbow")

1904: Britain and France signed the Entente Cordiale, the first step in an alliance that would be of great importance in World War I.

1913: The 17thamendment was ratified requiring the direct election of senators. Originally, they were chosen by the states.

1920: Birthday of Carmen McRae, jazz vocalist

1921: Birthday of Betty Bloomer Ford, first lady to Pres. Gerald Ford

1935: Congress established the Works Progress Administration as part of the New Deal.

1939: Italy invaded Albania.

1942: The Soviets opened a rail link to the besieged city of Leningrad.

1945: Prominent anti-Nazi German theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer was hanged at Flossenburg, days before the concentration camp was liberated by American forces.

1952: Pres. Harry S. Truman ordered the seizure of US. steel mills to prevent a strike.

1962: Bay of Pigs invaders were sentenced to 20 years imprisonment in Cuba.

1974: Hank Aaron broke Babe Ruth's record with his 715thcareer home run.

1990: Ryan White, an 18 year old national symbol of the AIDS catastrophe, died.

1993: Astronaut Ellen Ochoa became the first Hispanic woman in space.

2009: Somali pirates hijacked the Maersk container ship Alabama.

2013: Death of Margaret Thatcher.
“Incline my heart to your testimonies, and not to selfish gain!”
Psalm 119:36
Jack Bauer
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Fat Daddy
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The Eighth Wonder of the World

1965 - the Astrodome opens - Astros vs Yankees

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April 9:

193: Septimius Severus was proclaimed emperor by the army.

1241: Mongol armies defeated Poles and Germans at the Battle of Liegnitz.

1454: City states Venice, Milan, and Florence signed a peace treaty at Lodi, Italy.

1649: Birthday of James Scott, Duke of Monmouth

1682: Robert La Salle claimed the lower Mississippi River and neighboring lands for France.

1731: The War of Jenkins' Ear began when British Capt. Robert Jenkins lost an ear to Spanish brigands.

1770: Capt. James Cook discovered Botany Bay in Australia.

1859: Samuel Clemens, aka Mark Twain, received his steamboat pilot's license.

1865: Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.

1865: Birthday of Erich Ludendorff, German general during WWI

1879: Birthday of W.C. Fields, comedian and actor

1881: Billy the Kid was convicted of murder.

1898: Birthday of Paul Robeson, actor and activist

1905: Birthday of J. William Fulbright, U.S. Senator from Arkansas

1916: The Germans launched their third offensive during the Battle of Verdun.

1921: The Russo-Polish War ended with the Riga Treaty.

1939: Opera singer Marian Anderson sang on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. An international superstar, she was denied an opportunity to sing in Constitution Hall because she was black so First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt helped to organize an alternative venue for a much larger audience in person and over the radio.

1940: Germany invaded Norway and Denmark.

1942: American soldiers under Maj. Gen. Edward P King, Jr. surrendered to Japanese forces at Bataan in the Philippines. This would lead to the barbaric Bataan Death March and 3 years of imprisonment in horrific POW camps.

1945: The Red Army was repulsed on the outskirts of Berlin.

1950: Comedian Bob Hope made his first television appearance.

1959: NASA introduced America's first astronauts including John Glenn, "Gus" Grissom, and Alan Shepard.

1968: Burial of Martin Luther King, Jr. days after his murder.

1969: The "Chicago Eight" plead not guilty to federal conspiracy charges.

2003: U.S. forces captured Baghdad during the Iraq War.

2005: Prince Charles married Camilla Parker Bowles.
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April 10:

1583: Birthday of Hugo Grotius, Dutch statesman and scholar

1778: Commander John Paul Jones and his crew of 140 men aboard the USS Rangerset sail with the purpose of raiding British ships. This was the first mission of its kind during the Revolutionary War and their daring exploits would achieve some success.

1790: Establishment of the U.S. patent system

1794: Birthday of Matthew C. Perry, American naval officer who opened Japan to trade

1827: Birthday of Lee Wallace, Civil War general, lawyer, diplomat, and author of Ben Hur

1880: Birthday of Frances Perkins, U.S. Labor Secretary, first female cabinet member

1903: Birthday of Clare Boothe Luce, reporter, U.S. ambassador to the Vatican

1906: Publication of "The Gift of the Magi" by O. Henry.

1912: The Titanicsailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage.

1919: Assassination of Mexican Revolutionary leaderEmiliano Zapata.

1925: F. Scott Fitzgeraldpublished The Great Gatsby.

1932: Paul von Hindenburgwas elected president of Germany.

1932: Birthday of Omar Sharif, actor who starred inDr. Zhivago

1938: The Anschlu: Germany annexed Austria.

1941: American forces occupied Greenland to prevent the Germans from infiltrating the island.

1942: Beginning of the Bataan Death Marchin the Philippines.

1945: In a second attempt to take the Seelow Heights outside Berlin, the Red Army launched multiple attacks. Gaining one mile of territory cost them 3,000 dead and 368 tanks destroyed.

1963: Atomic submarine USS Threshersank in the Atlantic Ocean killing all aboard.

1970: Paul McCartney announced the breakup of the Beatles.

1974: Yitzhak Rabin became Prime Minister of Israel, replacing the retiring Golda Meir.
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April 11:

1370: Birthday of Frederick I, elector of Saxony

1713: The Treaty of Utrechtwas signed, ending the War of the Spanish Succession.

1803: French Foreign Minister Talleyrand offered to sell the Louisiana Territory to the U.S. American representatives were initially interested in purchasing New Orleans but were instead given this surprise offer.

1814: Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte abdicated the French throne and went into exile on the island of Elba of the coast of Italy.

1862: Birthday of Charles Evans Hughes, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

1893: Birthday of Dean Acheson, Secretary of the U.S. under Pres. Truman who helped to create NATO

1898: Pres. William McKinley asked Congress to declare war on Spain beginning the Spanish-American War.

1932: Birthday of Joel Grey, actor

1941: German bombers blitz Coventry, England.

1945: Soldiers of the U.S. army liberated the Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar, Germany.

1945: After two days of heavy casualties, the Red Army took the Seelow Heights outside Berlin.

1947: Jackie Robinson became the first black Major League Baseball player, playing for the Brooklyn Dodgers.

1951: Pres. Harry S. Truman fired Gen. Douglas MacArthur for insubordination during the Korean War.

1961: The war crimes trial of Adolf Eichman began in Israel for his role in masterminding the Holocaust.

1968: Pres. Johnson signed a new Civil Rights Act into law.

1970: Apollo 13 launched from Cape Kennedy on its voyage to the moon.

1974: The Judiciary committee of the House subpoenaed Pres. Richard Nixon to produce tapes of conversations in the Oval Office during the Watergate investigation.

1979: Ida Amin, dictator of Uganda, was overthrown.

1981: Pres. Ronald Reagan returned to the White House after hospitalization for an assassination attempt.

2015: Pres. Barack Obama met with Raul Castro, dictator of Cuba, in Paris.
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April 12:

1204: Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade by crusaders ostensibly there to help the Byzantine Empire.

1606: England adopted the Union Jack as its flag.

1633: Galileo was convicted of heresy by the Roman Inquisition.

1770: The British government repealed the Townshend Acts which was hated in the American colonies as another example of "taxation without representation."

1777: Birthday of Henry Clay, American politician and statesman; the "Great Compromiser" who was central in the Missouri Compromise, ending the Nullification Crisis, and the Compromise of 1850; three-time presidential candidate, losing each time

1861: Confederate forces fired upon Ft. Sumter at the entrance to Charleston Harbor, thus beginning the Civil War.

1877: For the first time, a catcher's mask is used during a baseball game.

1945: Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt died in Warm Springs, Georgia and succeeded by Harry S. Truman.

1949: Birthday of Scott Turow, American lawyer and novelist

1954: Bill Haley recorded "Rock Around the Clock."

1955: The discovery of a polio vaccine by Dr. Jonas Salk was announced.

1961: Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the earth.

1963: Police used dogs and cattle prods on peaceful civil rights protestors in Birmingham, Alabama.

1975: The U.S. Embassy in Cambodia was evacuated as communist Khmer Rouge forces began their final assault to take the city.

1981: The Space Shuttle Columbia was launched for the first time.

1983: Harold Washington was elected the first black mayor of Chicago.
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April 13:

1598: King Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes granting political rights to the Huguenots.

1732: Birthday of Frederick Lord North, British Prime Minister

1742: Premier of Handel's Messiah in Dublin

1743: Birthday of Thomas Jefferson

1775: Lord North extended the New England Restraining Act to South Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland forbidding trade with any country other than Britain or Ireland.

1861: Union forces at Ft. Sumtersurrendered to the Confederates. They had run out of supplies and Pres. Lincoln and the U.S. Navy were unable to resupply them.

1864: Gen. Sherman and his forces began their March to the Sea, devastating Georgia and dividing the Confederacy.

1866: Birthday of Butch Cassidy (Robert LeRoy Parker), American outlaw

1870: The Metropolitan Museum of Art opened in NYC.

1899: Birthday of Alfred Butts, inventor of the board game Scrabble

1902: J. C. Penny opened his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming.

1906: Birthday of Samuel Beckett, playwright, Nobel Prize winner (Waiting for Godot)

1909: Birthday of Eudora Welty, Southern writer

1919: Amritsar Massacre: British soldiers killed hundreds of Indians.

1928: The first nonstop flight from Europe to North America, landing on a small Canadian island.

1941: German forces captured Belgrade.

1943: Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated the Jefferson Memorial.

1945: The Red Army captured Vienna.

1960: The first navigational satellite was launched into Earth's orbit.

1964: Sidney Poitierwon the Best Actor Oscar for Lilies of the Field, the first black to win an Oscar.

1970: The oxygen tank exploded on Apollo 13 en route to the moon. The moon landing was cancelled as the engineers at NASA focused on bringing the 3 astronauts safely home. (You've seen the movie!)

1976: The U.S. Federal Reserve began issuing $2 bicentennial notes.

1990: The Soviets admitted to their responsibility in the Katyn Forest Massacre during WWII. In the Spring of 1940, the Soviets murdered 22,000 Polish officers and continued blaming the Germans despite substantial evidence to the contrary.

1997: Tiger Woods won the Masters for the first time.
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Apollo 13 is a great story that captured the world's attention while being lived out.

"Failure is not an option " was the best line and best outlook for the entire situation although, Gene Krantz never said it. It came about during interviews in preparation for making the movie.
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Apollo 13 is a great story that captured the world's attention while being lived out.

"Failure is not an option " was the best line and best outlook for the entire situation although, Gene Krantz never said it. It came about during interviews in preparation for making the movie.

Typical Hollywood. Still a great line.
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April 14:

1471: After fighting on both sides in the War of the Roses, the Earl of Warwick was killed in the Battle of Barnet with the defeat of the Lancastrians.

1543: Bartolome Ferrelo returned to Spain after discovering San Francisco Bay.

1578: Birthday of Philip III, king of Spain and Portugal

1775: The First American abolition societywas founded in Philadelphia. Before the United States even existed, Americans were organizing to end the institution of slavery.

1793: A royalist rebellion in Santo Domingo was put down by troops of the French republic.

1818: Publication of Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language

1860: The first Pony Express rider arrived in San Francisco with mail that originated in St. Joseph, Missouri.

1865: Pres. Abraham Lincoln and his wife attended a performance at Ford's Theater during which he was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth, a disgruntled southern radical upset about the Confederacy having recently lost the Civil War.

1866: Birthday of Anne Mansfield Sullivan, teacher of Hellen Keller

1889: Birthday of Arnold Toynbee, English historian

1894: The kinetoscope, an early motion picture device invented by Thomas Edison, was shown to the public for the first time.

1900: The World Exposition opened in Paris.

1904: Birthday of Sir John Gielgud, British actor

1912: The largest moving object ever constructed, the RMS Titanic of the White Star Line, struck an iceberg in the North Atlantic on its maiden voyage.

1918: American pilots engaged in the first dogfight over the western front.

1931: King Alfonso XIII of Spain was overthrown.

1945: American B-29 bombers damaged the Imperial Palace during a firebombing raid over Tokyo.

1950: America's intelligence experts delivered to Pres. Harry Truman the important document NSC-68 outlining the policy of containment which would define American foreign policy for the first 10-20 years of the Cold War.

1953: The Viet Minh invaded Laos with 40,000 troops during the war with French colonial forces.

1961: The first live television broadcast from the Soviet Union

1969: The first major league baseball game was played in Montreal, Canada.

1981: Columbia, the first space shuttle, returned to Earth.

1986: U.S. forces bombed terrorist & military targets in Libya in response to the bombing of a club in West Berlin that killed an American serviceman. Libyan dictator Muammar al-Qaddafi survived but not all of his family. The attack had the desired impact as Qaddafi soon ceased his support of terrorism and later even provided aid to the U.S. in combatting terrorism.

1988: Soviet representatives signed an agreement with Afghanistan & the U.S. to withdraw their military forces from Afghanistan.
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April 16:

69: Otho committed suicide after his army was defeated by the forces of Vitellius at Bedriacum.

556: Beginning of the papacy of Palagius I.

1705: Queen Anne of England knighted Isaac Newton.

1746: Prince Charles was defeated at the Battle of Culloden, the last pitched battle fought in Britain.

1818: The Senate ratified the Rush-Bagot amendment to establish the unarmed U.S.-Canadian border. Today it is the longest unarmed border in the world.

1854: An earthquake devastated San Salvador.

1862: Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, approved a conscription act for white males between 18 and 35.

1862: Slavery was abolished in Washington, D.C.

1867: Birthday of Wilbur Wright, designer, builder, and flier of the first airplane.

1889: Birthday of Charlie Chaplin, film actor and director

1917: Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia from exile in Switzerland with aid from the Germans who provided a sealed train for the journey in the hopes that he would pull Russia out of WWI. They got their wish but still lost the war and the subsequent Bolshevik Revolution produced the first communist state.

1922: Annie Oakley shot 100 clay targets in a row, setting a woman's record.

1924: Birthday of Henry Mancini, composer and conductor

1945: The destroyer USS Laffeyearned the nickname "The Ship That Would Not Die" after surviving terrible damage from attacks by 22 Japanese aircraft near Okinawa.

1945: American forces entered Nuremberg, Germany.

1947: Bernard Baruch, multimillionaire and financier, coined the term "Cold War" to describe contemporary international developments.

1947: Birthday of Lew Alcinder (Kareem Abdul-Jabbar), NBA legend

1972: Apollo 16 departed for the moon. The fifth of the Apollo missions to make a lunar landing, it carried astronauts John W. Young & Charles M. Duke.

1972: Two giant pandas arrived in the U.S. from China.

2007: A crazed gunman went on a shooting rampage at Virginia Tech, killing 32 people.
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April 17:

1492: Christopher Columbus signed a contract with Spain to find a western route to the Indies.

1524: Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered New York Harbor.

1535: Antonio Mendoza was appointed the first viceroy of New Spain.

1676: Birthday of Frederick I, king of Sweden

1790: Death of Benjamin Franklin

1808: Napoleon Bonaparte issued the Bayonne Decree for the seizure of American ships.

1815: The Tambora volcano in Indonesia erupted killing 80,000.

1820: Birthday of Alexander Cartwright, sportsman who is among those credited with inventing baseball

1824: Russia abandoned all claims in North America south of Alaska.

1861: Virginia became the 8thstate to secede from the Union.

1865: Mary Surratt was arrested as a co-conspirator in the plot to assassinate Pres. Abraham Lincoln and other top officials.

1875: Sir Neville Chamberlain invented the game "snooker."

1885: Birthday of Isak Dinesen (Karen Blixen), Danish writer (subject of the film Out of Africa)

1894: Birthday of Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet dictator

1895: China and Japan signed the peace treaty of Shimonoseki.

1897: Birthday of Thornton Wilder, American novelist and playwright

1929: Baseball player Babe Ruth married Claire Hodgson, a former member of the Ziegfeld Follies.

1941: The German Wehrmacht completed their conquest of Yugoslavia.

1947: Jackie Robinson bunted for his first major league hit.

1961: Bay of Pigs invasion: Planned by the Eisenhower administration, the attempted invasion of Cuba by emigres and CIA forces failed as Pres. John F. Kennedy withdrew his support late.

1964: The Ford Mustang debuted at the World's Fair Flushing Meadows, New York.

1964: Jerrie Mock became the first woman to fly solo around the world.

1969: Alexander Dubcek, author of the "Prague Spring", resigned. His attempt to initiate reforms and produce "communism with a human face" were crushed by Soviet tanks and brutal repression.

1969: Sirhan Sirhan was convicted of assassinating Sen. Robert F. Kennedy.

1975: The communist Khmer Rouge conquered the capital of Cambodia, Phnom Penh.

1970: Apollo 13 returned safely to earth.
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April 18:

310: Eusebius of Vercelli began his reign as pope.

1480: Birthday of Lucretia Borgia, daughter of Pope Alexander VI and patron of the arts

1521: Martin Luther defied the Holy Roman Emperor at the Diet of Worms with the words, "Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise, God help me."

1775: Paul Revere & William Dawes ride through the night warning the colonists that "The British are coming!" The British, who held Boston under military rule, were planning to seize a stash of ammunition being held on Concord.

1791: National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.

1838: The Wilkes' expedition to the South Pole, six U.S. Navy vessels commanded by Lt. Charles Wilkes, departed.

1847: U.S. forces defeated Mexican forces at Cerro Gordo in one of the bloodiest battles of the Mexican-American War.

1853: The first train in Asia began running from Bombay to Tanna.

1857: Birthday of Clarence S. Darrow, ACLU lawyer representing the defense in the Scopes Monkey Trial

1861: Col. Robert E. Leedeclined the offer to command the Union army.

1895: End of the first Sino-Japanese War.

1906: The great San Francisco earthquake devastated the city and killed about 3,000.

1923: Yankee Stadium opened with Babe Ruth hitting a three run homer to beat the Red Sox 4-1.

1937: Leon Trotsky in exile called for the overthrow of Soviet dictator Josef Stalin.

1942: Doolittle raid: 16 American bombers under Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle conducted a daring and highly improbably attack on Japan, just months after Pearl Harbor. The B-25 bombers were launched from the carrier USS Hornet650 miles from their targets, although they were not designed to do so.

1943: Traveling in a bomber, Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the mastermind of the Pearl Harbor attack, was shot down by American P-38 fighters.

1946: Dissolution of the League of Nations.

1949: The Republic of Ireland withdrew from the British Commonwealth.

1950: The first transatlantic jet passenger trip

1954: Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser seized power in Egypt.

1956: Prince Rainier of Monaco married Grace Kelly.

1978: The U.S. Senate approved the transfer of the Panama Canal to the nation of Panama.

1980: Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) was proclaimed independence from Britain.

1983: A suicide bomber destroyed the U.S. embassy in Beirut.

1989: Thousands of Chinese students took to the streets of Beijing to protest the government and its policies. The protests would grow, be centered at Tiananmen Square, and be ruthlessly suppressed by the tyrannical government in June.
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historian said:

April 18:

1775: Paul Revere & William Dawes ride through the night warning the colonists that "The British are coming!" The British, who held Boston under military rule, were planning to seize a stash of ammunition being held on Concord.

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April 19:

1539: Truce between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and German Protestants at Frankfurt, Germany.

1689: The residents of Boston overthrew their governor, Edmond Andros.

1721: Birthday of Roger Sherman, signer of the Declaration of Independence

1764: The British Parliament banned the American colonies from printing paper money.

1775: Lexington & Concord: The "shot heard round the world" began the American Revolution: As British regulars marched to Concord to seize ammunition hidden there by the colonists, they were met by armed civilians blocking their path in Lexington. They managed to make it to Concord, only to find the munitions had been moved. They retreated under fire to Boston.

1782: The Netherlands recognized the United States.

1794: Tadeusz Kosciuszko forced the Russians out of Warsaw.

1802: Spain reopened the port of New Orleans to American merchants.

1824: Lord Byron died of Malaria in Greece while aiding their revolution for independence against the Ottoman Empire.

1861: Pres. Abraham Lincoln ordered a blockade of Confederate ports.

1880: The Timeswar correspondent telephoned a report of the Battle of Ahmed Khel, the first time news was sent from a field of battle in this manner.

1897: First Boston Marathon

1903: Birthday of Elliot Ness, Treasury agent during Prohibition, leader of the "Untouchables"

1934: Child actress Shirley Temple appeared in her first film.

1938: Gen. Francisco Franco declared victory in the Spanish Civil War.

1939: Connecticut finally approved the Bill of Rights.

1943: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising began: Jewish resistance fighters fought against the German occupation authorities.

1960: Baseball uniforms began displaying the names of players on their backs.

1971: The Soviets launched its first Salyut space station.

1977: Alex Haley received a special Pulitzer Prize for his book Roots.

1882: NASA named Sally Ride to be the first woman astronaut.

1989: The attack on the Central Park jogger.

1993: The Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas burned after a 51-day standoff between federal authorities and members of the religious cult.

1995: Domestic terrorists denoted a truck bomb outside the federal building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 people.
Jack Bauer
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April 20:

121: Birthday of Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor & philosopher

1139: The Second Lateran Council opened in Rome.

1657: English Admiral Robert Blake destroyed the Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay.

1745: Birthday of Philippe Pinel, founder of psychiatry

1769: Ottawa Chief Pontiac was murdered by an Indian in Cahokia.

1770: Captain Cook discovered Australia.

1775: British troops began the siege of Boston.

1792: France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia.

1808: Birthday of Charles Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III), emperor of France

1836: Congress created the Territory of Wisconsin.

1841: Edgar Allen Poe published the first detective story, his short story, "The Murders in the Rue Morgue".

1861: Robert E. Lee resigned from the U.S. Army following the secession of his home state of Virginia.

1871: Congress passed the Ku Klux Klan Act to provide tools to fight the terrorist organization that had begun in the South after the Civil War.

1879: The first mobile home was used in a journey from London to Cyprus. It was drawn by horses.

1889: Birthday of Adolf Hitler

1898: Pres. William McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war against Spain after the USS Mainehad exploded in Havana Harbor. War was declared and the U.S. had an easy victory against a weakened Spanish Empire. To this day, there is uncertainty about the cause of the explosion but the Spanish were probably not responsible.

1902: Marie & Pierre Currie isolated radium.

1919: The Polish Army captured Vilno, Lithuania from the Soviets.

1940: The first electron microscope was demonstrated.

1942: Pierre Laval, the premier of Vichy France announced on the radio a policy of "true reconciliation with Germany." Vichy's collaboration with the Nazis was in earnest.

1945: The Red Army began its assault on Berlin.

1951: Gen. Douglas MacArthur addressed a joint session of Congress after he was fired by Pres. Truman.

1962: The New Orleans Citizens Committee provided free one-way transportation to blacks willing to move north.

1986: Michael Jordan of the Chicago Bulls scored 63 points in a playoff game against the Boston Celtics.

1998: Birthday of Lauren Cox

1999: Two teenage gunmen killed 13 people at Columbine High School near Denver.
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April 21:

753 BC: Legendary founding of Rome

43: Octavian defeated Marcus Antonius near Modena, Italy.

1526: The Mongol Emperor Babur annihilated the Indian Army of Ibrahim Lodi.

1649: Maryland's colonial assembly passed the Toleration Act allowing for freedom of worship.

1689: Coronation of William III and Mary IIas joint monarchs, the only time in English history.

1816: Birthday of Charlotte Bronte, English novelist

1836: The Texas Army under Gen. Sam Houston defeated the Mexican Army under Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at San Jacinto securing Texas independence.

1838: Birthday of John Muir, American naturalist

1862: Congress established the U.S. Mint.

1864: Birthday of Max Weber, German sociologist and political economist

1895: Demonstration of the first movie projector in the U.S. Earlier motion pictures could only be viewed through a hole in a box but now films could be projected on a screen for a larger audience.

1898: Beginning of the Spanish-American War.

1910: Death of Samuel Clemens, aka Mark Twain, at the age of 75.

1914: U.S. Marines occupied Vera Cruz, Mexico where they would remain for 6 months.

1918: Manfred von Richthofen, aka the Red Baron, was killed in action on the western front.

1926: Birthday of Queen Elizabeth II

1960: Brasilia became the capital of Brazil.

1961: The French army rebelled in Algeria.

1975: Resignation of the last president of South Vietnam, Nguyen Van Theiu.

1989: Chinese students began their protests in Tiananmen Square in Beijing.

1995: Federal authorities arrested Timothy McVeigh in connection with the Oklahoma City bombing.
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April 22:

1451: Birthday of Isabella of Castile, Queen of Spain, patron of Christopher Columbus

1500: Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovered Brazil

1509: Henry VIII became King of England when his father, Henry VII, died.

1707: Birthday of Henry Fielding, English novelist

1724: Birthday of Immanuel Kant, German philosopher

1778: John Paul Jones led a raid on an English port town.

1792: Pres. George Washington proclaimed American neutrality in Europe's French Revolutionary war's which had recently started.

1870: Birthday of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

1889: The Oklahoma land rush officially began as thousands of Americans race for unclaimed land.

1904: Birthday of J. Robert Oppenheimer, physicist, director of the Manhattan Project

1915: Beginning of the Second Battle of Ypres; German forces introduced poison gas on the western front.

1916: Birthday of Yehudi Menuhin, concert violinist

1918: Birthday of Robert Wadlow, the world's tallest man at 8'11"

1945: Hitler admitted defeat to those with him in the bunker in Berlin.

1954: Sen. Joseph McCarthy began hearings in his investigation of the U.S. Army. This was the beginning of his downfall.

1970: Earth Day celebrated for the first time.

1976: Barbara Waltersbecame the first woman news anchor on network television.

1994: Death of Pres. Richard M. Nixon.

1995: Rwandan troops killed thousands of Hutu refugees.

2004: Former NFL safety Pat Tillman was killed by friendly fire in Afghanistan.
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April 23:

1014: King Brian of Ireland was murdered by Vikings.

1564: Birthday of William Shakespeare

1661: Coronation of Charles II thus restoring the monarchy to Britain.

1791: Birthday of future president James Buchanan

1813: Birthday of Stephen A. Douglas, American politician (most important politician of the 1850s)

1897: Birthday of Lucius D. Clay, U.S. military governor of postwar occupied Berlin

1926: Birthday of Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, Mercury and Gemini astronaut, died in an accident on Apollo 1

1928: Birthday of Shirley Temple Black, child actress, later U.S. ambassador

1945: Famous confrontation between Pres. Harry S. Truman and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslave Molotov. He took a tough stance against the Soviet for their duplicity in Europe.

1954: Hank Aaron hit the first home run of his MLB career.

1969: Sirhan Sirhan was sentenced to death for the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy.
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April 24:

858: Beginning of the papacy of Nicholas I.

1519: Envoys of Montezuma II attended the first Easter mass in Central America.

1547: Troops of Holy Emperor Charles V defeated the Protestant League of Schmalkalden at the Battle of Muhlberg.

1558: Mary, Queen of Scots married Francis, the dauphin of France.

1743: Birthday of Edmund Cartwright, English inventor of the power loom

1769: Birthday of Arthur Wellesley, the Duke Of Wellington, British general during the Napoleonic Wars

1792: Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle composed "La Marseillaise", later the French national anthem.

1800: The Library of Congress was established in Washington, D.C.

1805: U.S. Marines attacked and captured Derna in Tripoli from the Barbary Pirates.

1856: Birthday of Henri Philippe Petain, French Marshall, WWI hero, president of the collaborationist Vichy regime during WWII

1863: The Union issued a code of conduct for soldiers regarding the treatment of Confederate prisoners and civilians. It would become the basis for international agreements in future years, including the Geneva Conventions.

1877: Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.

1898: Spain declared war on the U.S., rejecting an ultimatum to leave Cuba.

1905: Birthday of Robert Penn Warren, novelist, first American poet laureate

1915: Turkish massacre of Armenians began.

1916: Beginning of the Easter Rebellion in Ireland. It ended in failure, but the Republic of Ireland would be proclaimed shortly after WWI.

1945: Pres. Harry S. Truman was briefed about the Manhattan Project, the secret development of the atomic bomb.

1948: Beginning of the Berlin Airlift to keep the western zones supplied during the Soviet blockade.

1953: Winston Churchillwas knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

1961: Pres. John F. Kennedy accepted "sole responsibility" for the failure of the Bay of Pigs fiasco.

1968: Leftist student radicals took over Columbia University during their protests of the Vietnam War.

1980: Mission to rescue American hostages being held in our embassy in Tehran, Iran ended in disaster.

1981: IBM introduced their Personal Computer, beginning the P.C. revolution.
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April 25:

1214: Birthday of Louis IX, king of France

1284: Birthday of Edward II, king of England

1559: Birthday of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England after the beheading of Charles I

1644: Emperor Chongzhen of the Ming dynasty hanged himself.

1719: Daniel Defoe published his masterpiece Robinson Crusoe.

1792: The guillotine was used to execute a criminal for the first time.

1859: Ground breaking for the construction of the Suez Canal.

1862: Admiral David Farragut occupied New Orleans.

1867: Tokyo was opened to foreign trade.

1874: Birthday of Guglielmo Marconi, Italian physicist, inventor of the radio

1908: Birthday of Edward R. Murrow, war correspondent and newscaster

1915: Allied forces began the invasion of Gallipoli.

1917: Birthday of Ella Fitzgerald, jazz singer

1926: Turandot, the final opera of Giacomo Puccini, premiered at La Scala in Milan with his friend Arturo Toscanini conducting. Puccini died near the end of the composition with students using his sketches to complete the score. Toscanini honored his friend by putting down his baton after the last note composed by Puccini.

1938: First use of a seeing eye dog.

1945: American and Soviet forces met in central Germany, at Torgau on the Elbe River.

1956: "Heartbreak Hotel" by Elvis Presley went to #1 on the charts.

1959: The St. Lawrence Seaway linking the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean opened for shipping.

1960: The first submerged circumnavigation of the globe was completed by a Triton submarine.

1971: Establishment of Bangladesh

1982: Honoring their agreement in the Camp David Accords, Israeli forces complete their withdrawal from the Sinai peninsula.

1990: The Hubble Space Telescope was placed in orbit.
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historian said:

I've never heard that. That is talent and creativity on parade
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This is my favorite jazz recording by any artist & Ella is my favorite jazz artist from any era (although there are many great ones). The woman was pure genius how she ad libbed after forgetting the lyrics. She sang it again using some of the same lyrics but it's not the same when it's rehearsed. Even Sinatra did a similar version with a reference to "Lady Ella" which was great, but not the same. Other great or near great versions: Bobby Darin, Louis Armstrong, Michael Bubl, Dean Martin, Brian Setzer, Robbie Williams, and others. Apparently these include Bing Crosby and Anita O'Day although I am unfamiliar with those recordings.
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April 26:

1514: Nicholas Copernicus made his first observations of Saturn.

1564: Baptism of William Shakespeare.

1785: Birthday of John James Audubon, artist and naturalist

1812: Birthday of Alfred Krupp, German arms merchant

1822: Birthday of Frederick Law Olmstead, landscape architect who designed New York's Central Park

1865: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston surrendered the Army of Tennessee to Gen. William T. Sherman.

1865: Death of John Wilkes Booth, Pres. Abraham Lincoln's assassin.

1875: Birthday of Syngman Rhee, South Korean politician

1894: Birthday of Rudolf Hess, Hitler's personal secretary

1900: Birthday of Charles Richter, physicist and seismologist

1915: The Treaty of London was signed whereby Italy switched sides from the Central Powers to that of the Allies.

1931: New York Yankee Lou Gehrig hit a home run but was called out for passing a runner. Ultimately, this cost him the home run record.

1937: The Germans tested their new Luftwaffe (air force) on the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.

1954: The first polio vaccine trials began.

1954: Opening of the Geneva Conference to deal with problems in Asia.

1968: Students seized control of the Ohio State administration building.

1983: The Dow Jones Industrial Average broke 1,200 for the first time.

1986: Worst ever nuclear power plant disaster at Chernobyl in modern Ukraine, then part of the Soviet Union.

1986: Maria Shriver married Arnold Schwarzenegger.
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